The hottest talk about the prospect of polystyrene

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Talking about the prospect of returning polystyrene foamed plastic tableware to the market (VII)

3.3 PS foamed plastic tableware and recycling

the view that PS foamed plastic tableware cannot be recycled is also one of the main reasons for its prohibition, which is also an ideological misunderstanding. As we all know, PS foam is a thermoplastic, and its waste can be recycled is an indisputable fact. However, PS foamed plastic tableware is light, bulky and widely used, which indeed brings considerable difficulties to recycling. For this reason, since the late 1980s, eight states in the United States, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan, China province of China have legislated to ban and restrict the use of PS foamed plastic tableware, but after implementation, it was found that the ban could not solve the environmental problems well. Because there was no suitable substitute, it was inconvenient to use, making it difficult to implement the ban regulations. Therefore, many bans were revoked, and some were not implemented and ended up, Some are modified to meet the requirements of a certain recycling rate and recovery rate

3.3.1 the U.S. Congress has not formulated formal regulations on the management policy of PS foamed plastic products in the United States, but several states have begun to legislate. For example, since 1988, 39 cities and towns in about 8 states in the United States have passed the prohibition of PS foamed plastic containers for food. (3) some key materials have insufficient protection capacity, but many changes have taken place in the implementation. In fact, only a few cities and towns have implemented it, and some have been officially abolished, Most of them are mainly replaced by regulations that promote recycling. However, the ban on PS foamed plastic packaging products and containers using CFCs as foaming agent has not been removed· Iowa issued a decree in 1989, which stipulates that if the waste recycling rate of PS foamed plastic material fails to reach the specified rate, it will be prohibited from being used in the production and sale of packaging and food containers. The decree was lifted in 1995· In 1997, Maine amended the original decree on banning PS foam plastic food containers into PS foam plastic food containers used by government units must be recycled, otherwise banned. The provision of food to the school or the elderly who need to eat in a wheelchair is not prohibited· California and Oregon revised the original ban on PS foamed plastic food containers to a recovery rate of 25% in 1995· In 1995, the state of North Carolina in the United States revised the original regulation requiring PS foam plastic food containers to contain at least 25% recycled materials to the proportion that does not require recycled materials· The regulation of "no distribution, sale or supply of PS foam plastic food containers except those containing recyclable and renewable substances" issued by South Carolina in 1992 has not been enforced yet. In the early 1990s, eight manufacturers of pre expanded polystyrene (EPS) and PS foamed plastics led by Dow Chemical Company in the United States invested a total of US $160million to establish EPS (including PS foamed plastics) packaging recycling companies and associations, which are mainly responsible for promoting the recycling and treatment of industrial EPS products. At present, there are more than 200 recycling points for industrial EPS products across the country, constituting a national recycling system, and the recycling methods are generally regrinding and hot melting. At present, the EPS recovery rate has increased from 25% in 1995 to more than 30%. Due to the strengthening of recycling work, the consumption of PS foamed plastic tableware in the United States reached 23.2kt in 2000, with an average annual increase of 8%. Ping he said: Although our composite decoration looks more like solid wood, the average recycling rate is 12%. 3.3.2 Germany is the country with the strictest regulations. In 1991, it issued the regulations on packaging materials, which stipulated that the recycling rate of plastic packaging reached 64%. And it will all be borne by the manufacturer. In 1992, more than 400 companies, including packaging raw materials, materials, consumer goods manufacturers and traders, organized the establishment of DSD (DualSystem Netherlands) national waste and recycling system (green dot), established a separation and collection system and collected plastic packaging "green dot" fees to subsidize recycling costs. Germany does not ban PS foamed plastic tableware, but only stipulates that CFCs should not be used as foaming agent for PS foamed plastic. Since August 1991, Germany has completely banned PS foamed plastic packaging materials containing CFCs. Although PS foamed plastic tableware has not been banned, it is difficult to recycle and costly, or it is selectively accepted by the German recycling system because of limited recycling treatment. 3.3.3 Japan also considered banning the management of PS foamed plastic tableware in the 1980s. Since the 1990s, it has tended to strengthen recycling and recycling. In 1991, Japanese PS foamed plastic manufacturers (including raw materials and processing manufacturers) established PS (including PS foam plastic) renewable Recycling Association (jepsra). Be responsible for organizing the recycling and disposal of packaging materials for household appliances, CA machines, fish boxes, fruit and vegetable boxes, food containers and other wastes used in the fresh food market, and entrust the packaging material treatment plant set up by shuishuihuacheng Industry Co., Ltd. to carry out the final treatment, which can be processed into mortar mixtures, soil modifiers or recycled materials, and processed into other products. In 2001, the proportion of EPS recovery: regenerative granulation 37.8%, thermal energy 22.3%, a total of 60.1%, reaching the target of 86%. 3.3.4 South Korea attaches great importance to the management and recycling of plastic waste, and has successively formulated a number of regulations: the synthetic resin waste treatment business law in 1979, the waste management law in 1991, the promotion of resource conservation and reuse law in 1992, and the agreement on commodity packaging methods and packaging material standards to prevent the production of packaging waste, Article 5 of the agreement stipulates that it is prohibited to use non degradable packaging materials, PS foamed plastics as shockproof packaging materials for toys, gifts, etc., and PS foamed plastics laminating materials and coating materials as packaging materials; The law on promoting resource conservation and reuse stipulates that EPS and PS foam packaging waste must be stored and recycled by classification. The utilization ratio of EPS recycling in energy-saving building materials is required to reach 50% for large enterprises and 30% for small and medium-sized enterprises. The law was amended in 2002, mainly to increase taxes and compulsory recycling: producers and importers of products, materials and packaging containers that are not easy to recycle are taxed, and they are required to forcibly recycle their main products. The above taxable goods include PS foam instant noodles bowls, agricultural trays, seafood, livestock supplies and fast food boxes. In 2001, the total EPS consumption in South Korea was 228165 tons, the waste generation was 50000 tons, and the recovery was 27252 tons, with a recovery rate of 53.5%. South Korea imposed a mandatory recovery on general PS foam plastic tableware, but the packaging used for such as cups, bowls, noodles and export products was not limited, and the consumption in 2000 was 35kt. 3.3.5 Taiwan, China Province, China in 1989, PS foamed plastic manufacturers in Taiwan, China province established PS foamed plastic products committee under the Taiwan plastic products industry trade union to plan various recycling work. In 1990, 16 PS foamed plastic sheet manufacturers jointly established the "Green Foundation", which is mainly responsible for the recycling treatment of PS foamed plastic disposable tableware and the research and development of recycling technology. In 1991, the Environmental Protection Bureau of Taiwan Province formulated the waste disposal law, which included PS foamed plastics in the control items, requiring a certain recovery rate. In 1992, the "key points for prohibiting the use of PS foam plastic food packaging containers in government institutions and schools" was formulated. With the expansion of recycling business, this regulation was lifted in 1994. And modify it as recycling to standardize its use conditions. In 1991, Taiwan Provincial Environmental Protection Bureau formulated the waste disposal law, which included PS foamed plastic tableware into the control project, requiring a certain percentage of recovery rate after use. In 1992, the regulation of "key points for prohibiting the use of PS foam plastic food packaging in government institutions and schools" was formulated. With the smooth development of recycling business, the regulation was lifted in 1994 and revised to regulate its use conditions by recycling. The recycling of PS foamed plastics in Taiwan began in 1992. After more than 10 years of recycling, the recycling system has been continuously improved, and the relevant recycling system has been established. Since 1997, the Taiwan government has incorporated the recycling work initiated by the private sector into the official recycling system, that is, the "green conservation foundation" has been transferred to the "resource recovery management fund management committee" under the Environmental Protection Bureau, in order to improve the recycling efficiency and more orderly management. In 2001, nearly 29.1kt of PS foam plastic waste tableware was recycled. Since the 1990s, Taiwan has been calling for the prohibition of PS foamed plastics. Coupled with the increase of recycling and recycling costs, in 1997, Taiwan's Environmental Protection Bureau amended the content of the waste disposal law and added the provision that "the use of materials or products that are easy to cause serious pollution can be prohibited or restricted". At present, the environmental protection bureau implements the control of PSPS foamed plastic tableware in stages. The first phase was first implemented in various organs and schools in April 2003, and the second phase was extended to all business places and supermarkets on January 1, 2004. The management of PS foam in the above-mentioned act is only the provisions and conditions of restriction, not completely prohibited. Nevertheless, it has not yet been seriously implemented. 3.3.6 from 1997 to 1998, the State Environmental Protection Administration issued relevant regulations to strengthen the recycling of plastic packaging waste, but failed to implement them for various reasons. In 1999, the former State Economic and Trade Commission issued Order No. 6, requiring the elimination of PS foamed plastic disposable plastic tableware by the end of 2000. Around this time, more than 10 cities including Beijing, Tianjin, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Chongqing, Wuhan, Xi'an, etc. have also issued bans and implementation schedules, but for various reasons. It is difficult to implement the policy. So far, PS foamed plastic tableware is still everywhere in many urban markets, so that the white ban is equal to the white ban. Among many cities, Shanghai's approach is pragmatic and effective. Drawing on the mature experience of foreign countries and combined with the specific situation of Shanghai, Shanghai issued the people's government order No. 84 in 2000, which proposed the principle of "source control, recycling, gradual prohibition and encouraging substitution" for the management of disposable plastic lunch boxes, and began to implement the "Interim Measures for disposable plastic lunch boxes". According to the principle of environmental management, who pollutes, who is responsible, the management department will charge the manufacturer 3 cents for each pollution treatment fee, It is used to pay the labor fee, transportation, management and law enforcement fee and waste lunch box disposal fee of the recycler (1

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